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In the LNM system, the redox-active Ni reacts with the electrolyte at the surface of the cathode leading to cathode electrolyte interphase CEI formation, which reduces cyclability by creating an increasingly thicker interphase that slows Li diffusion to and from the cathode. A blue diamond, indicative of the LiMn2O4 cubic spinel structure, is shown in the bulk while a Mn3O4 phase red diamond is visible at the surface. A fast Fourier transform FFT of the original full image is included to indicate the crystal. This research project seeks to study the surface of LNM using a similar approach as that used for the study of LMO and identify the role that Ni plays in the surface reconstruction of LNM.

With the collected information, inferences will be made as to why and how the surfaces of these spinel cathode materials reconstruct and conclusions may be made about their electrochemical performance once inside a battery. Shreyas Rajasekhara Intel , Dr. The mechanical properties of nanocrystalline thin films are strongly related to their grain size according to the Hall-Petch equation.

However, in materials with nano grain sizes, rapid and abnormal grain growth may occur when subjected to heating during manufacture or usage, which will decrease their strength. In addition, as grain growth occurs, the local texture may evolve, which also affects the mechanical properties. In this context, the goal of this work is to develop a thorough study on how grain growth and local texture of copper and nickel thin films may be affected by the deposition method, substrate, film thickness and annealing temperature.

Orientation maps combined with reliability maps. In order to determine the grain size and texture in nano grain size materials, traditional techniques such as Electron Backscattered Diffraction EBSD can no longer provide the resolution required. Therefore, a technique called Precession Electron Diffraction Microscopy, which provides a spatial resolution of nm and minimizes dynamical diffraction effects in TEM, will be performed. This technique will allow us to investigate the grain orientation, average grain size and grain boundary information in a fully automated fashion.

Furthermore, to improve the Precession analysis, a newly developed method will be used where the diffraction patterns are filtered for noise threshold, spot enhance loop, gamma, spot radius and softening loop. In this fashion, the reliability of the results will be improved. The first set of samples correspond to nickel and copper thin films with thicknesses of 30nm and nm deposited on NaCl crystals at room temperature by pulsed laser deposition PLD and sputtering. The first set of samples will be subjected to an annealing temperature of C for various times to monitor the evolution of grain size and texture.

The second set of samples will be subjected to two treatments of C and C and three different times. In summary, this work will enable us to correlate between grain size, local texture, deposition method, substrate, film thickness and annealing temperature in Ni and Cu nanocrystalline thin films. Photocatalysis is a promissing technology application in a wide variety of chemical and environmental technologies, for example in the conversion of solar energy into chemical energy and to remove pollutants on liquid and gaseous environmental.

In this context, nanostructured TiO 2 has been prominent in photocatalytic applications where it is a crystal structure, size surface area and morphology exposed facets are important. The materials studied in this work are synthesized through calcination of trititanate nanotubes TTNT previous synthesized by alkaline hydrothermal route. The morphology of the synthesized materials does not always assume a form of equilibrium of its natural phase and is not completely know, being this an important characteristic for a photocatalytic activity.

The higher the surface energy of the exposed faces of the material, the greater its photocatalytic activity, consequently better results of photocatalysis. The relationship between agent of a police material and its nanostructure can be well elucidated through different electron microscopy techniques.

Transition metal

Transmission electron microscopy TEM is a more complete technique for a nanoscale characterization of crystal structure and morphology. From this, grain size, morphology, crystallography, chemical composition, phase determination, particle coalescence, etc. The main objective of the project is to use TEM advanced techniques to characterize TiO 2 -based nanomaterials synthesized from post-heat treatment of TTNTs, allowing a study and understanding of the entire synthesis process, such as nanomaterials and correlating the morphology of each nanomaterial with their photocatalytic properties.

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